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1464121_535881793153312_798000948_n.jpgTyphoon Haiyan (Chinese: 海燕; literally "petrel" 1 of November 2013, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Yolanda, is one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded. The thirtieth named storm, thirteenth typhoon, and fifth super-typhoon of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Haiyan originated as an area of low pressure east-southeast of Pohnpei in the western Pacific Ocean on November 2. Tracking generally westward, the disturbance steadily developed within an environment of light wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures, becoming a tropical depression early the following day. After becoming a tropical storm and attaining the name Haiyan at 0000 UTC on November 4, the system began a period of rapid intensification that brought it to typhoon intensity by 1800 UTC on November 5. With an expanding and deepening central dense overcast and clear eye visible on satellite, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) upgraded Haiyan to a super typhoon—a typhoon in which maximum sustained winds attain or exceed 240 km/h (150 mph)—early on November 6. After entering PAGASA's region of responsibility, the JTWC upgraded Haiyan to a Category 5 equivalent on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale.
Steered by a subtropical ridge to the cyclone's north, the eye of Haiyan passed over the northern portion of Palau, where extensive wind damage was observed. Thereafter, it continued to intensify; at 1200 UTC on November 7, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded the storm's maximum ten-minute sustained winds to 235 km/h (145 mph), the highest in relation to the cyclone. At 1800 UTC, the JTWC estimated the system's one-minute sustained winds to 315 km/h (195 mph), unofficially making Haiyan the fourth most intense tropical cyclone ever observed. Several hours later, the eye of the cyclone made its first landfall in the Philippines at Guiuan, Eastern Samar, without any change in intensity; if verified, this would make Haiyan the strongest tropical cyclone to make a landfall on record, which may surpass the old record of 305 km/h (190 mph) set by Hurricane Camille in 1969. On November 8, the cyclone entered the South China Sea and was downgraded to a Category 4 typhoon by the JTWC. Readings indicated that Typhoon Haiyan dropped to Category 3 as it traversed the South China Sea, with gusts of up to 210 km/h (130 mph) and 1-minute sustained winds of up to 190 km/h (120 mph).
The cyclone caused widespread devastation in the Philippines, particularly on Samar Island and Leyte, where at least 10,000 people were feared to have died in the city of Tacloban alone.

Typhoon Haiyan: Shocking aerial pictures reveal devastation in the Philippines

Typhoon Haiyan as seen from space

[ISS] Typhoon Haiyan Seen from International Space Station



Meteorological history

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Storm path

On November 2, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began monitoring a broad area of low pressure located about 425 km (265 mi) east-southeast of Pohnpei, one of the states in the Federated States of Micronesia. The system featured broken banding features alongside steadily consolidating convection. Environmental conditions ahead of the disturbance favored tropical cyclogenesis and dynamic weather forecast models predicted that a well-defined tropical cyclone would form within 72 hours. Early on November 3, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) classified the system as a tropical depression. Owing to a consolidating low-level circulation center with building deep convection, the JTWC also classified the system as a tropical depression, shortly after issuing a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. Subsequent intensification resulted in the JMA upgrading the system to a tropical storm and assigning it the name Haiyan (Chinese: 海燕; literally "petrel") at 0000 UTC on November 4. Meanwhile, the JTWC also upgraded it to a tropical storm, when the expansive system was steadily consolidating in an area of weak to moderate vertical wind shear and tracking westward along the southern periphery of a subtropical ridge. By November 5, the storm began to undergo rapid intensification as a prominent central dense overcast (CDO) with an embedded eye began developing. Owing to the formation of an eye, the JTWC estimated Haiyan to have achieved typhoon status around 0000 UTC that day. The JMA followed suit 18 hours later, by which time the JTWC estimated one-minute sustained winds to have reached 195 km/h (120 mph).
A small typhoon, with a core roughly 110 km (70 mi) across, rapid intensification continued through November 6 as a 11 km (7 mi) wide pin-hole
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eye formed. Upper-level outflow favored further strengthening of the system and was further enhanced by a Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough to the northeast. Intense banding features along the southern periphery of Haiyan wrapped into the system as well. Early on November 6, the JTWC estimated the system to have achieved super typhoon status. That day, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigned the storm the local name Yolanda as it approached their area of responsibility. Intensification slowed somewhat during the day, though the JTWC estimated the storm to have attained Category 5-equivalent status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale around 1200 UTC. At this time, Haiyan displayed a 15 km (9 mi) wide eye surrounded by a ring of deep convection. Later, the eye of the typhoon passed over the island of Kayangel in Palau
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Typhoon Haiyan over the Philippines on November 8

Around 1200 UTC on November 7, Haiyan attained its peak intensity with ten-minute sustained winds of 235 km/h (145 mph) and a barometric pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg). This made it the second-most intense tropical cyclone in the Northwest Pacific Ocean on record, based on wind speeds alone, along with Bess in 1982 and Megi in 2010, only after Tip in 1979. Six hours later, the JTWC estimated Haiyan to have attained one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph) and gusts up to 378 km/h (235 mph). This unofficially ranks Haiyan as the fourth-strongest tropical cyclone on record in terms of wind speed, only exceeded by Typhoon Ida (325 km/h) in 1958, Typhoon Violet (335 km/h) in 1961, and Typhoon Nancy (345 km/h) in 1961. However, due to the fact the wind recordings in typhoons were erroneously high during the 1950s and 1960s, Haiyan unofficially ranks as the strongest tropical cyclone on record. The storm displayed some characteristics of an annular tropical cyclone, though a strong convective band remained present along the western side of the system. Satellite estimates at the time, using the Dvorak technique, reached the maximum level on the scale: T#8.0.The storm's structure exceeded the maximum intensity on the scale as, the "Dvorak technique makes no allowance for an eye embedded so deeply in cloud tops as cold as [cold dark gray]," as noted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) satellite analysis branch. Some automated models initialized its intensity at T#8.1, exceeding the scale's upper bounds. Through satellite estimates, NOAA also estimated that Haiyan achieved a minimum pressure between 858 mbar (hPa; 25.34 inHg) and 884 mbar (hPa; 26.11 inHg).

Around 1900 UTC on November 7, Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar at peak intensity. Upon doing so, it became one of the strongest landfalling tropical cyclones on record. In terms of one-minute sustained winds from the JTWC, Haiyan was the most powerful storm to strike land on record. Interaction with land caused slight degradation of the storm's structure, though it remained an exceptionally powerful storm when it struck Tolosa, Leyte between 2000 and 2100 UTC. The mountainous terrain of the Philippines disrupted the cyclone's low-level inflow and prompted steady weakening. Convection shallowed somewhat and the eye shrunk and became cloud-filled. The typhoon made four additional landfalls as it traversed the Visayas: Bantayan Island, Daanbantayan, Panay, and Busuanga Island. Haiyan emerged over the South China Sea late on November 8. The storm's core had been substantially disrupted during its passage through the Philippines, with only a partial eyewall remaining intact around a ragged, cloud-filled eye. In contrast to the appearance, the JTWC estimated it to have retained winds of 235 km/h (145 mph) at this time, while the JMA estimated winds at 165 km/h (105 mph).

Preparations

Micronesia and Palau

Upon JTWC’s declaration of Tropical Depression 31W on November 3, a tropical storm warning was issued for Chuuk Lagoon, Losap, and Poluwat in the Federated States of Micronesia. Further west, Faraulep, Satawal, and Woleai, were placed under a typhoon watch while Fananu and Ulul were placed under a tropical storm watch. The following day, the tropical storm warning expanded to include Satawal while a typhoon warning was issued for Woleai. Much of Yap State while the islands of Koror and Kayangel in Palau were placed under a typhoon watch later on November 4. The government issued a mandatory evacuation for Kayangel, and although most residents ignored the warning, they all survived the storm. As Haiyan progressed westward, the easternmost advisories were gradually discontinued. As Haiyan intensified into a typhoon on November 5, warnings were raised across Palau and Yap State. Government offices in Melekeok were used as an evacuation building for Palau. Despite mandatory evacuation orders, most residents on Kayangel remained on the island and rode out the typhoon.

Philippines

external image 220px-Typhoon_Haiyan_2013_making_landfall.gif
external image magnify-clip.png Animated enhanced infrared satellite loop of Typhoon Haiyan from peak intensity to landfall in the Philippines

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In Surigao City, 281.9 mm (11.10 in) of rainfall was recorded, much of which fell in under 12 hours.

Haiyan made its initial landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar at 20:45 UTC on November 7, 2013, with preliminarily estimated sustained wind speeds between 147 and 195 miles-per-hour. PAGASA also recorded that Haiyan made landfall on the Visayas region six times. Storm surges were also recorded in many places. In the island of Leyte and Samar, PAGASA measured 5–6 meter (15–19 ft) waves.

As of 10 November 2013, 151 deaths had been confirmed by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). However, an official in Samar reported a death toll of 300.

In Tacloban, Leyte, the terminal building of Tacloban Airport was destroyed by a 5.2 m (17 ft) storm surge up to the height of the second story. Along the airport, a storm surge of 4 m (13 ft) was estimated. Waves of 4.6 m (15 ft) were also estimated.[75] There was widespread devastation from the storm surge, with many buildings being destroyed, trees knocked over or broken, and cars piled up. The low-lying areas on the eastern side of Tacloban city had been most badly affected, with the low-lying populated areas near the coast completely washed away. Flooding also extended for one kilometer inland on the east coast of the province.Preliminary estimates were that more than 1,000 people had died in Tacloban city within Leyte province, with 200 more than in Samar province. 70 to 80% of the province of Leyte has been destroyed, and the governor estimates there are at least 10,000 people dead.[79][80] As national government authorities started to enter the devastated areas on November 9, the Philippine Daily Inquirer reported that the Philippine Red Cross feared a death toll of around 1,200.[77] On the western coast of Samar the storm surge was not so significant.

Throughout Tacloban City, widespread looting took place in the days following Haiyan's passage. In some instances, relief trucks were attacked and had food stolen in the city. Two of the city's malls and numerous grocery stores were subjected to looting. A fuel depot in the city was guarded by armed police while 200 additional officers were dispatched to assist.[82] President Benigno Aquino III considered declaring martial law in hopes of restoring order.

Most families in Samar and Leyte have lost some family members or relatives; families are coming in from outlying provinces looking for relatives that may have been washed away, especially children. However, government aid eventually arrived into Tacloban city.

Although wind speeds were extreme, the major cause of damage and loss of life appears to have been storm surge. The major focus of devastation appears to have been on the east coast of Samar and Leyte, with a particular focus on Tacloban, because of its location between Samar and Leyte, and the large population in low lying areas. Philippine Interior Secretary Mar Roxas said the scale of the relief operation that was now required was overwhelming, with some places described as a wasteland of mud and debris; "From a helicopter, you can see the extent of devastation. From the shore and moving a kilometre inland, there are no structures standing. It was like a tsunami,". [85] The devastation in Tacloban has been described by journalists on the ground as "off the scale, and apocalyptic". Tacloban has been completely flattened, where not a single building seems to have survived.[86] "The devastation is ... I don't have the words for it," Interior Secretary Mar Roxas said. "It's really horrific. It's a great human tragedy.".

Sebastian Rhodes Stampa, head of a UN disaster assessment co-ordination team, said there was "destruction on a massive scale" in Tacloban. "There are cars thrown like tumbleweed and the streets are strewn with debris. The last time I saw something of this scale was in the aftermath of the [2004] Indian Ocean tsunami."[75] There is little communication in the city, and no mobile phone coverage. Up the east coast of the Leyte there are numerous towns and villages that are completely cut off without any assistance. Large parts of Leyte and Samar are without power and may have no power for a month.

The storm crossed the Visayas region for almost a day, causing widespread flooding. In Cebu and Iloilo, struck by an earthquake two weeks before, cities were also severely devastated. During the morning of November 8, media stations across the country were able to broadcast live the destruction of Haiyan. However, before afternoon, all communications on the Visayas region failed. The Presidential Communications Department of President Benigno Aquino III had difficulty contacting Interior and Local Government Secretary Mar Roxas and Defense Secretary Voltaire Gazmin in Iloilo to plan relief. Widespread power interruptions, landslides and flash floods were also reported. Major roads were blocked by trees, and impassable. 453 domestic and international airline flights were canceled. Some airports were also closed on November 8 and 9. Ferries were affected. Relief and rescue efforts were underway by November 9, but some places remained isolated and out of communication due to severe damage.

Effects of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in the Philippines|||||||||||| ||||||||||||~ [hide]Casualties
||
Region
Deaths
Injuries
Missing
CALABARZON (IV-A)
2
2
0
MIMAROPA (IV-B)
5
0
1
Bicol Region (V)
2
21
0
Western Visayas (VI)
38
43
10
Central Visayas (VII)
37
4
2
Eastern Visayas (VIII)
169
0
25
Zamboanga Peninsula (IX)
1
1
0
Caraga (XIII)
1
0
0
Total
255
71
38

SOURCE: Data gathered from the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). Updated as of 6:00 a.m. of November 11, 2013.[65]

[hide]Damage[65]

Amount
Agriculture
257,508,129.05
(US$5,960,798.17)
Infrastructure
₱38,997,500.00
(US$902,714.13)
Total damages[nb 5]
₱296,505,629.05
(US$6,863,512.30)



China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Hong Kong


Twenty-six people were swept out to sea at New Taipei, Taiwan by heavy seas credited to Haiyan. Eighteen were rescued but eight died.

A cargo ship broke from its moorings at Sanya, Hainan, China on November 8; the crew of six are listed as missing.

In neighbouring Vietnam, Haiyan made landfall as a severe tropical storm and produced widespread heavy rain. At least ten people were reported killed, mostly by accidents and health complications during preparation works in central provinces affected by the outer bands of the storm.

A 18-year-old, Hazad Rangzeb, was missing at Lower Cheung Sha Beach on the island of Lantau, New Territories, Hong Kong, on 9th November, 2013.

Aftermath


The United Nations said it was going to increase critical relief operations as a result of the "devastation." Its Manila office issued a statement that read: "Access remains a key challenge as some areas are still cut off from relief operations. Unknown numbers of survivors do not have basic necessities such as food, water and medicines and remain inaccessible for relief operations, as roads, airports and bridges were destroyed or covered in wreckage."[94] By November 10, United States President Barack Obama pledged aid to the Philippines. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel ordered Pacific Command to deploy vessels to the region and aircraft for search-and-rescue missions as well as to deliver relief supplies. The United Nations also began relief operations by this time; however, the severe damage to infrastructure hampered efforts to distribute supplies.[82]

Canada has announced $5 million in immediate aid, as well as matching any contributions Canadians make until December 8th.[95] Britain has offered a support package worth more than $10 million, the EU $4.2 million, and Australia $10 million. Germany is transporting 23 tons of aid as well as supplying rescue teams. Doctors Without Borders is sending 200 tons of aid, New Zealand has committed $1.78 million, Taiwan $200,000, and Singapore $40,000.

The Chief Executive of Hong Kong expressed his deepest sympathies.[98] There is call to postpone the proposed economic sanctions upon the Philippines as a result of the poor handling of the Manila hostage crisis three years before.




Shared on Nov 10, 2013 10:39 am by WorldNewsMedia
Edited last by WorldNewsMedia on Nov 11, 2013 1:31 pm
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